Behaviour Therapy (REBT) is based on the concept that emotions and
behaviours result from cognitive processes; and that it is possible for
human beings to modify such processes to achieve different ways of feeling
and behaving. REBT is one of a number of �cognitive-behavioural�
therapies, which, although developed separately, have many similarities �
such as Cognitive Therapy (CT), developed by Psychiatrist
Aaron Beck in the 1960�s.
the mid-1950�s Dr. Albert Ellis, a clinical psychologist trained in
psychoanalysis, became disillusioned with the slow progress of his
clients. He observed that they tended to get better when they changed
their ways of thinking about themselves, their problems, and the world.
Ellis reasoned that therapy would progress faster if the focus was
directly on the client�s beliefs, and thus was born the method now known
as Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.
Theory of causation
proposes a �biopsychosocial� explanation as to how human beings come to
feel and act as they do, suggesting that a combination of biological,
psychological, and social factors are involved.
most basic premise of REBT is that almost all human emotions and
behaviours are the result of what people think, assume or believe (about
themselves, other people, and the world in general). It is what people
believe about situations they face � not the situations themselves � that
determines how they feel and behave.
however (along with most other CBT theories), argues that a person�s
biology also affects their feelings and behaviours (an important point, as
it is a reminder to the therapist that there are some limitations on how
far a person can change). Also involved are the events and circumstances
faced by a person as they go through life.
A useful way to
illustrate this triple approach to causation is by using Ellis� �ABC�
model. In this framework �A� represents an activating event or
experience and the person�s inferences or interpretations about the event;
�B� represents their beliefs about the event; �C� repre�sents the
consequence � the emotions and behaviours that follow from those
thoughts and beliefs.
Here is an example
of an �emotional episode�, as experienced by a person whose history
indicates a biological proneness to low mood and a tendency to
misinterpret how he is viewed by other people:
A. What started things off:
Event: friend passed me in the street
without acknowl�edging me.
Inferences about the event: �He�s ignoring
me; he doesn�t like me.�
B. Beliefs about A:
�I could end up without friends for ever � and that would be
�For me to be happy and feel worthwhile, peo�ple must like me.�
�I�m unacceptable as a friend � so I must be worthless as a
Feelings: lonely, depressed.
Behaviours: avoiding people generally.
that �A� does not cause �C�: �A� triggers off �B�, �B� then causes �C�.
Also, ABC episodes do not stand alone � they run in chains, with a �C�
often becoming the �A� of another episode. For instance, the person above
may observe their low mood, telling himself: �Oh, no � I�m getting
depressed again and I couldn�t bear that�, then feel anxious. Human beings
frequently observe their own emotions and behaviours then react anew to
Note, too, that
most beliefs are outside conscious awareness. They are habitual or
automatic, often consisting of underlying �rules� about how the world and
life should be. With practice, though, peo�ple can learn to uncover such
What is irrational thinking?
have seen that what people think determines how they feel. But what
types of thinking are problematical for human beings?
describe a belief as �irrational� is to say that:
It blocks a person from achieving their goals, creates extreme
emotions that persist and which distress and immobilise, and leads to
behaviours that harm oneself, others, and one�s life in general.
It distorts reality (it is a misinterpretation of what is
happening and is not supported by the available evidence);
It contains illogical ways of evaluating oneself, others, and the
world: demandingness, awfulising, discomfort-intolerance and
REBT often refers to beliefs as �self-defeating� rather than �irrational�,
in order to emphasise that the effect on a person�s life is the key
criteria for deciding whether a belief is irrational.
beings appear to think at three levels: (1) Inferences; (2) Evaluations;
and (3) Core beliefs.
individual has a set of general �core beliefs� � usually subconscious �
that determines how they react to life. When an event triggers off a train
of thought, what someone consciously thinks depends on the core
beliefs they subconsciously apply to the event.
say that a person holds the core belief: �For me to be happy, my
life must be safe and predictable.� Such a belief will lead them to be
hypersensitive to any possibility of danger and overestimate the
likelihood of things going wrong. Suppose they hear a noise in the night.
Their hypersensitivity to danger leads them to infer that there is
an intruder in the house. They then evaluate this possibility as
catastrophic and unbearable, which creates feelings of panic.
is an example (using the ABC model) to show how it all works:
A. Your neighbour phones and asks if you will baby-sit for the rest of
the day. You had already planned to catch up with some gardening. You
infer what will happen: �If I say no, she will think badly of me.�
You evaluate your inference: �I couldn�t stand to have her
disapprove of me and see me as selfish.�
Your evaluation comes from the
underlying rule: �I need love and approval from those significant to
me � and I must avoid disapproval from any source.�
You say yes.
summary, people view themselves and the world around them at three levels:
(1) inferences, (2) evalua�tions, and (3) underlying rules/core beliefs.
The therapist�s main objective is to deal with the underlying,
semi-permanent, general �rules� that are the continu�ing cause of the
client�s unwanted reactions.
REBT places greater
emphasis on dealing with evaluative-type thinking than do other
cognitive-behavioural approaches, which focus rather more on inferential
thinking. REBT especially underscores the centrality of demandingness over
other types of thinking.
suggests that human beings defeat or �disturb� themselves in two main
ways: (1) by holding irrational beliefs about their �self� (ego
disturbance) or (2) by holding irrational beliefs about their emotional or
physical comfort (discomfort disturbance). Frequently, the two go
together � people may think irrationally about both their �selves� and
their circumstances � though one or the other will usually be predominant.
In everyday life,
events and circumstances trigger off two levels of thinking: inferring and
evaluating. First, we make guesses or inferences about what is
�going on� � what we think has happened, is happening, or will be
happening. Inferences are statements of �fact� (or at least what we think
are the facts � they can be true or false). Inferences that are irrational
usually consist of the following �distortions of reality�:
Black and white thinking
The seven types of
inferential thinking described above have been outlined by Aaron Beck and
his associates (see, for example:
Burns, David M.
Feeling Good: The new mood therapy. Signet, New American Library, New
York, 1980). In REBT, a person�s inferences are regarded as part of the
from the REBT perspective, as well as making inferences about things that
hap�pen, we go beyond the �facts� to evaluate them in terms of what
they mean to us. Evaluations are sometimes conscious, sometimes
beneath awareness. Irrational evaluations consist of one or more of the
following four types:
Demandingness. Referred to
colourfully by Ellis as �musturbation�, de�mandingness refers to the way
people use unconditional shoulds and absolutistic musts �
believing that certain things must or must not happen, and that certain
con�ditions (for example success, love, or approval) are absolute
necessities. Demandingness implies certain �Laws of the Universe� that
must be adhered to. Demands can be directed either toward oneself or
others. Some REBT theorists see demandingness as the �core� type of
irrational think�ing, suggesting that the other three types derive from it
Exaggerating the conse�quences of past, present or future events; seeing
something as awful, terrible, horrible � the worst that could happen.
intolerance (often referred
to as �can�t-stand-it-itis�). This is based on the idea that one
cannot bear some circumstance or event. It often follows awfulising, and
leads to demands that certain things not happen.
People-rating refers to the process of evaluating one�s entire self (or
someone else�s). In other words, trying to determine the total value of a
person or judging their worth. It represents an overgeneralisation. The
person evaluates a specific trait, behaviour or action according to some
standard of desirability or worth. Then they apply the evaluation to their
total person � eg. �I did a bad thing, there�fore I am a bad person.�
People-rating can lead to reactions like self-downing, depression,
defensive�ness, grandiosity, hostility, or overconcern with ap�proval and
Rules (core beliefs)
Rules, as we saw
earlier, are the underlying beliefs that guide how we react to life. What
specific events mean to someone (how they evaluate them) depends on
the underlying, general �rules� they hold. Ellis proposes that a
small number of core beliefs underlie most unhelpful emotions and
behaviours. Here is a sample list of such �rules for living�:
I need love and
approval from those significant to me � and I must avoid disapproval
from any source.
To be worthwhile
as a person I must achieve, succeed at whatever I do, and make no
always do the right thing. When they behave obnoxiously, unfairly or
selfishly, they must be blamed and punished.
Things must be
the way I want them to be, oth�erwise life will be intolerable.
is caused by things that are out�side my control � so there is little I
can do to feel any better.
I must worry
about things that could be danger�ous, unpleasant or frightening �
otherwise they might happen.
I can be happier
by avoiding life�s difficulties, unpleasantness, and responsibilities.
to depend on someone stronger than themselves.
Events in my
past are the cause of my problems � and they continue to influence my
feelings and behaviours now.
I should become
upset when other people have problems, and feel unhappy when they�re
I shouldn�t have
to feel discomfort and pain � I can�t stand them and must avoid them at
should have an ideal solution � and it�s intolerable when one can�t be
HELPING PEOPLE CHANGE
The steps involved
in helping clients change can be broadly summarised as follows:
Help the client
understand that emotions and behaviours are caused by beliefs and
thinking. This may consist of a brief explanation followed by assignment
of some reading.
Show how the
relevant beliefs may be uncovered. The ABC format is invaluable here.
Using an episode from the client�s own recent experience, the therapist
notes the �C�, then the �A�. The client is asked to consider (at �B�):
�What was I telling myself about �A�, to feel and behave the way I did
at �C�? As the client develops understanding of the nature of irrational
thinking, this process of �filling in the gap� will become easier. Such
education may be achieved by reading, direct explanation, and by
self-analysis with the therapist�s help and as homework between
Teach the client
how to dispute and change the irrational beliefs, replacing them with
more rational alternatives. Again, education will aid the client. The
ABC format is extended to include �D� (Disputing irra�tional beliefs),
�E� (the new Effect the client wishes to achieve, i.e. new ways of
feeling and behaving), and �F� (Further Action for the client to take).
Help the client
get into action. Acting against irrational beliefs � for example,
disputing the belief that disapproval is intolerable by deliberately
doing something to attract it, then discovering that one sur�vives � is
an essential component of REBT. Its empha�sis on both rethinking and
action makes it a powerful tool for change. Such activities are usually
referred to as �homework�.
The Process of Therapy
What follows is a
summary of the main components of an REBT intervention.
The first step is to build a
the client. This can be achieved using the core conditions of empathy,
warmth and respect.
for �secondary problems� about coming for help: self-downing over having
the problem or needing assistance; and anxiety about coming to the
Finally, possibly the best way to engage a client for REBT is to
demonstrate to them at an early stage that change is possible and that
REBT is able to assist them to achieve this goal.
Assessment will vary from
person to person, but following are some of the most common areas that
will be assessed as part of an REBT intervention.
Start with the
client�s view of what is wrong for them.
Determine the presence of any related clinical
Obtain a personal and social history.
Assess the severity of the problem.
relevant personality factors.
secondary disturbance: how does the client feel about having this
Check for any non-psychological causative
factors: physical conditions; medications; substance abuse;
Clarify treatment goals.
Assess the client�s motivation to change.
Introduce the basics of REBT, including the
biopsychosocial model of causation.
Discuss approaches to be used and
implications of treatment.
Develop a contract.
of the sessions will occur in the implementation phase, using activities
like the following:
specific episodes where the target problem(s) occur, ascertaining the
beliefs involved, changing them, and developing homework (I call this
behavioural assignments to reduce fears or modify ways of behaving.
Supplementary strategies & techniques as
appropriate, e.g. relaxation training, interpersonal skills
Toward the end of the
intervention it will be important to check whether improvements are due to
significant changes in the client�s thinking, or simply to a fortuitous
improvement in their external circumstances.
It is usually very important
to prepare the client to cope with setbacks.
Many people, after a period of wellness, think they are �cured� for life.
Consequently, when they slip back and discover their old problems are
still present to some degree, they are likely to despair and give up
working on themselves altogether. To avoid this happening:
relapse is likely for many mental health problems and ensure they know
what to do when their symptoms return.
Discuss their views on asking for help if needed
in the future. Deal with any irrational beliefs about coming back,
like: �I should be cured for ever�, or: �The therapist would think I was
a failure if I came back for more help�.
A typical REBT interview
happens in a typical REBT interview? Here is how an interview based on the
ABC model would usually progress:
previous session�s homework. Reinforce gains and learning. If not
completed, help the client identify and deal with the blocks involved.
target problem to work on in this session.
Assess the �A�:
what happened, when did it last occur? What did the client infer was
happening or would result from what happened?
Assess the �C�:
specifically what unwanted emotion did the client experience, and how
strong was it?
assess any secondary emotional problems (inappropriate negative emotions
about having the problem, for example shame about feeling grief).
beliefs � �B� � causing the unwanted reac�tions, especially
demandingness, awfulising, discomfort-intolerance, and people-rating.
Connect �B� &
�C� (help the client see that their unwanted reaction resulted from
agree on the goal � �E�: how does the client wish to feel (and behave)
when next confronted with a similar �A�?
Help the client
dispute their beliefs, preferably using �Socratic questioning� (�Where
is the evidence ... ?� �How is it true that ... ?� �Where is it written
that you must ... ?� etc. Replace beliefs that are agreed to be
assignments � �F� � to enable the client to put their new rational
beliefs into practice. Identify and deal with any potential blocks to
completion of the homework.
Techniques Used In REBT
Ellis recommends a
�selectively eclectic� approach to therapy, whereby there are no
techniques that are essential to REBT; rather, one uses whatever works,
assuming that the strategy is compatible with REBT theory. Following are
some examples of procedures in common use.
analyses of specific episodes
to teach the client how to uncover and dispute irrational be�liefs (as
described earlier). These are usually done in-session at first; then, as
the client gets the idea, they can be done as homework.
If the client is holding a �should� or is self-downing about their
behaviour, ask whether they would globally rate another person (e.g. best
friend, therapist, etc.) for doing the same thing, or recommend that
person hold their demanding core belief. When they say �No�, help them see
that they are holding a double-standard. This is especially useful with
resistant beliefs which the client finds hard to give up.
scale: this is a
useful technique to get awfulising into perspective. On a whiteboard or
sheet of paper, draw a line down one side. Put 100% at the top, 0% at the
bottom, and 10% intervals in between. Ask the client to rate whatever it
is they are catastrophising about, and insert that item into the chart in
the appropriate place. Then, fill in the other levels with items the
client thinks apply to those levels. You might, for example, put 0%:
�Having a quiet cup of coffee at home�, 20%: �Having to mow the lawns when
the rugby is on television�, 70%: being burgled, 90%: being diagnosed with
cancer, 100%: being burned alive, and so on. Finally, have the client
progressively alter the position of their feared item on the scale, until
it is in perspective in relation to the other items.
useful and effective technique (also known as reverse role-playing)
is designed to get the client arguing against their own dysfunctional
belief. The therapist role-plays adopting the client�s belief and
vigorously argues for it; while the client tries to �convince� the
therapist that the belief is dysfunctional. It is especially useful when
the client now sees the irrationality of a belief, but needs help to
consolidate that understanding. (NB: as with all techniques, be sure to
explain it to the client before using it).
another strategy for
getting bad events into perspective is to re-evaluate them as
�disappointing�, �concerning�, or �uncomfortable� rather than as �awful�
or �unbearable�. A variation of reframing is to help the client see that
even negative events almost always have a positive side to them, listing
all the positives the client can think of (NB: this needs care so that it
does not come across as suggesting that a bad experience is really a
this technique is
designed to show that one�s life, and the world in general, continue after
a feared or unwanted event has come and gone. Ask the client to visualise
the unwanted event occurring, then imagine going forward in time a week,
then a month, then six months, then a year, two years, and so on,
considering how they will be feeling at each of these points in time. They
will thus be able to see that life will go on, even though they may need
to make some adjustments.
The �blow-up� technique:
this is a
variation of �worst-case� imagery, coupled with the use of humour to
provide a vivid and memorable experience for the client. It involves
asking the client to imagine whatever it is they fear happening, then blow
it up out of all proportion till they cannot help but be amused by it.
Laughing at fears will help get control of them.
of the best ways to check out and modify a belief is to act. Clients can
be encouraged to check out the evidence for their fears and to act in ways
that disprove them.
possibly the most common behavioural strategy used in REBT involves
clients entering feared situations they would normally avoid. Such
�exposure� is deliberate, planned and carried out using cognitive and
other coping skills. The purposes are to (1) test the validity of one�s
fears (e.g. that rejection could not be survived); (2) de-awfulise them
(by seeing that catastrophe does not ensue); (3) develop confidence in
one�s ability to cope (by successfully managing one�s reactions); and (4)
increase tolerance for discomfort (by progressively discovering that it is
this type of
exposure involves confronting the fear of shame by deliberately acting in
ways the client anticipates may attract disapproval (while, at the same
time, using cognitive and emotive techniques to feel only concerned or
disappointed). For example, you could get the client to switch their shoes
to the wrong feet then walk round the office building with you for ten
minutes or so, at the same time disputing their shame-inducing thinking.
the purpose is to
challenge beliefs that certain behaviours are too dangerous to risk, when
reason says that while the outcome is not guaranteed they are worth the
chance. For example, if the client has trouble with perfectionism or fear
of failure, they might start tasks where there is a reasonable chance of
failing or not matching their expectations. Or someone with a fear of
rejection might talk to an attractive person at a party or ask someone for
client wishes to change a dysfunctional tendency, encourage them to
deliberately behave in a way contradictory to the tendency. Emphasise the
importance of not waiting until they �feel like� doing it: practising the
new behaviour � even though it is not spontaneous � will gradually
internalise the new habit.
Stepping out of character:
is one common type of paradoxical behaviour. For example, a
perfectionistic person could deliberately do some things to less than
their usual standard; or someone who believes that to care for oneself is
�selfish� could indulge in a personal treat each day for a week.
used to combat low frustration-tolerance by deliberately delaying smoking,
eating sweets, using alcohol, sexual activity, etc.
e.g. relaxation, social skills.
Tape recording of
interviews for the client to replay at home.
the most important REBT strategy is homework. This includes
reading, self-help exercises, and experi�ential activities. Therapy
sessions are really �training sessions�, between which the client tries
out and uses what they have learned. At the end of this arti�cle there is
an example of a homework format which clients can use to analyse specific
episodes where they feel or behave in the ways they are trying to change.
REBT has been
successfully used to help people with a range of clinical and non-clinical
problems, using a variety of modalities.
disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, agoraphobia,
specific phobias, generalised anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder,
chronic health problem, physical disability, or mental disorder
adolescent behaviour disorders
� REBT theory contains detailed principles (for example, enlightened
self-interest, self-acceptance, risk-taking) which can be used to help
people develop and act on a more functional philosophy of life.
effectiveness � DiMattia (DiMattia & Ijzermans, 1996) has developed a
variation of REBT known as Rational Effectiveness Training which is
increasingly being used in the workplace to aid worker and managerial
The most common
use of REBT is with individual clients, but this is followed closely by
group work, for which REBT is eminently suited. REBT is also frequently
used with couples, and there is a growing literature on REBT family
therapy. A newer development is the use of REBT in non-clinical settings
in the workplace, as described above.
Suitable client groups
REBT has been
developed over the years for use with individuals, couples, and families;
adults and children; people with mental health problems; people with
physical illnesses, disabilities, and terminal illnesses; different
cultural groups; and people of varying intellectual ability, including
those with learning impairments.
Practice Principles of REBT
The basic aim of
REBT is to leave clients at the completion of therapy with freedom to
choose their emotions, behaviours and lifestyle (within physical, social
and economic restraints); and with a method of self-observation and
personal change that will help them maintain their gains.
unpleasant emotions are seen as dysfunc�tional. Nor are all pleasant
emotions functional. REBT aims not at �positive thinking�; but rather at
realistic thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that are in propor�tion to
the events and circumstances an individual experiences.
Though REBT is a
�cognitive� therapy, it gives considerable attention to the emotional
life of human beings. Thinking is only analysed in relation to a
There is no �one
way� to practice REBT. It is �se�lectively eclectic�. Though it has
techniques of its own, it also borrows from other approaches and al�lows
practitioners to use their imagination. There are some basic assumptions
and principles, but otherwise it can be varied to suit one�s own style
and client group.
educative and collaborative. Clients learn the therapy and how to use it
on themselves (rather than have it �done to them�). The therapist
provides the training � the client carries it out. There are no hidden
agendas � all procedures are clearly explained to the client. Therapist
and client together design homework assignments.
between therapist� and client is very important, but is seen as existing
to facilitate therapeutic work � rather than being the therapy itself.
The therapist shows empa�thy, unconditional acceptance, and
encouragement; but is careful to avoid activities that create
dependen�cy or strengthen any �needs� for approval.
While REBT is
active-directive, the therapist almost always works within the client�s
value system. New ways of thinking are not pressed onto the client, but
rather developed collaboratively.
past is seen as relevant in that this is where much irrational thinking
originates; but because uncovering the past is not usually helpful in
changing how a person reacts in the present, REBT therapists do not
engage in much �archaeological� exploration.
REBT is brief
and time-limited. It commonly in�volves five to thirty sessions over one
to eighteen months. The pace of therapy is brisk. A minimum of time is
spent on acquiring background and historical information: it is
task-oriented and focuses on prob�lem-solving in the present.
REBT is a method
of psychotherapy, so the emphasis is on helping people change how they
feel and behave in reaction to life events. However, such personal
change may be a prelude to enabling a person to more effectively seek
environmental change. Consequently, REBT helps people change themselves
and their unwanted circumstances.
criticism of psychotherapy is that it may encourage people to become
self-centred. REBT avoids this by teaching several principles, for
example �enlightened self-interest� (see Froggatt, 1997) that encourage
individuals to attend to both their own interests and those of other
REBT tends to be
humanistic, anti-moralistic, and scientific. Human beings are seen as
the arbiters of what is right or wrong for them. Behaviour is viewed as
functional or dysfunctional, rather than as good or evil. REBT is based
on research and the principles of logic and empiricism, and encourages
scientific rather than �magical� ways of thinking.
emphasis is on profound and lasting change in the underlying belief
system of the client, rather than simply eliminating the presenting
symp�toms. The client is left with self-help techniques that enable
coping in the long-term future.
REBT has a number
of characteristics that are original to the approach � here is a
Absence of Self-Evaluation
REBT has a unique
approach to a common therapeutic problem: that of low self-esteem.
would try to help people with low self-esteem by encouraging them to
regard themselves as �worthy� human beings. REBT therapist takes a
radically different approach � encour�aging the client to throw out the
idea of self-esteem entirely! This involves giving up the practice of
trying to judge human beings as �worthy� (a notion, incidentally, that
implies it is possible for them to be �unworthy�!); and getting rid of the
idea that people somehow need �value� or �esteem�.
The client is,
instead, urged to (1) aim for uncondi�tional self-acceptance �
irrespective of their traits and behaviours or how other people see them;
(2) ac�knowledge that they simply exist � and choose to stay alive, seek
joy, and avoid pain; and (3) instead of rat�ing their self, to
concentrate on rating their actions or traits (and the effects of
these) in terms of how they help achieve the client�s goals.
that human beings frequently develop problems about their problems. By
creating these �secondary� problems, they complicate their emotional and
Guilt is a common
secondary problem: for instance, people with anger problems may down
themselves because they have trouble controlling their rage. Sufferers of
chronic anxiety frequently get anxious about getting anxious (the �fear of
fear�). Clients in therapy may become despondent because they are not
overcoming their problems as quickly as they think they �should� be able
For therapy to be
effective, these �secondary� problems usually need to be addressed before
the primary problem will become accessible.
Discomfort Disturbance v. Ego
As noted above,
REBT suggests that global evaluation of the �self� will often lead to
emotional disturbance. This is referred to as �ego disturbance� � a
concept that exists (in various forms) in probably most other therapeutic
orientations, under such terms as �low self-esteem�, �poor self-image� and
uniquely argues that there is another type of disturbance of equal or even
greater significance: �discomfort disturbance�, usually referred to
as �low discomfort-tolerance� (LDT), or �low frustration-tolerance� (LFT).
This concept explains why people may overreact to unpleasant life
experiences, to frustration, and to their own bad feelings (thus
developing �secondary� problems); or will sabotage their therapy because
they consciously or subconsciously perceive it as �too hard�.
LEARNING TO USE REBT
To practise REBT
it is important to have a good under�standing of irrational thinking. This
can be gained by a critical reading of the substantial literature
The use of REBT in
the interview situation is best learned by attending a training course
(the Primary Certificate Program is the usual starting point). It can also
be observed by reading verbatim records of inter�views or from audio or
video tapes of interviews conducted by REBT practitioners.
The most effective
way to learn how to help clients uncover and dispute irrational beliefs is
to practice REBT on oneself, for example by using writ�ten �self-analysis�
exercises (see the last page of this article for an example of a �rational
There are hundreds of books and articles
based on REBT.
Here is a small selection of what is available:
Bernard, Michael. Staying Rational in an Irrational World: Albert Ellis
& Rational-Emotive Therapy. Carlson/McMillan, South Melbourne, 1986.
Calabro, Louis E. Living
with Disability. Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy, New York,
Dryden, Windy & Gordon, Jack. (1993). Beating the Comfort Trap.
London Sheldon Press.
Dryden, Windy. (1996). Overcoming Anger. London Sheldon Press.
Dryden, Windy. (1997). Overcoming Shame. London Sheldon Press.
Ellis, Albert & Abrams, Michael. (1994). How to Cope With a Fatal
Illness: the rational management of death and dying. New York
Barricade Books, Inc.
Ellis, Albert & Harper, Robert A. (1975). A New Guide to Rational
Living. Hollywood Wilshire Book Company.
Ellis, Albert. Anger � How
to Live With and Without It. Carol Publishing Group, New York, 1977.
Ellis, T.T. & Newman, C.F. (1996). Choosing to Live: How to defeat
suicide through cognitive therapy. Oakland New Harbinger Publications.
Froggatt, Wayne N. Choose to be Happy: Your Step-by-step Guide.
HarperCol�lins, Auckland, 1993.
Froggatt, Wayne N.
GoodStress: The life that can be yours. HarperCollins, Auckland, 1997.
Hauck, Paul. How to Bring
Up Your Child Successful�ly. Sheldon Press, London, 1967.
Hauck, Paul. How To Do
What You Want To Do. Sheldon Press, London, 1976.
Hauck, Paul. How to Love
and be Loved. Sheldon Press, London, 1983.
Paul. Jealousy. Sheldon Press, London, 1981.
Hauck, Paul. Making
Marriage Work. Sheldon Press, London, 1977.
Hauck, Paul. Overcoming
Depression. The Westmin�ster Press, Philadelphia, 1976.
Hauck, Paul. Overcoming
Frustration and Anger. The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1974.
Jakubowski, P., & Lange, A.J. (1978). The Assertive Option: Your Rights
& Responsibilities. Champaign,Il Research Press.
Klarreich, Samuel H. Work
Without Stress. Brunner/Mazel, New York, 1990.
Oliver, Rose & Bock, Fran. (1987). Coping with Alzheimer's: A
Caregiver's Emotional Survival Guide. North Hollywood Wilshire Book
Robb, H.B. How to Stop
Driving Yourself Crazy With Help From the Bible. Institute for
Rational-Emotive Therapy, New York, 1988.
Robin, Mitchell W. & Balter, Rochelle. (1995). Performance Anxiety.
Holbrook, Massachusetts Adams Publishing.
Wolfe, Janet. What to Do
When He Has a Headache: How to rekindle your man's desire. Thorson's,
Specific applications of
A., McInerney, J., DiGiuseppe,R. & Yeager,R., Rational-Emotive Therapy
With Alcoholics And Substance Abusers, Pergamon Press, New York, 1988.
Ferstein, Marjorie E. &
Whiston, Susan C., Utilizing RET For Effective Treatment of Adult
Children of Alcoholics, Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour
Therapy, 9:1, 39-49, 1991.
T.A. & Maultsby, M.C., The Rational Alcoholic Relapse-Prevention
Method, Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, Vol 2 (3-4), 243-247, 1985-86.
Ellis, Albert. (1976).
Techniques of Handling Anger in Marriage. 2, 305-315: J. of Marriage &
Ellis, A. & Greiger, R.
(Eds.). (1986). Handbook Of Rational-Emotive Therapy (vol 2). New York:
Nelson, Hart & Finch. (1993).
Anger in Children: A Cognitive-behavioural View of the Assessment-Therapy
Connection. 11:3, 135-150: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour
Ellis, Albert, A Note On
The Treatment Of Agoraphobics, Behaviour Research And Therapy, 17,
Ellis, Albert, Rational
Emotive behaviour Therapy Approaches to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder,
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 12:2, 121-141,
Rational-Emotive Treatment of Simple Phobias, Psychotherapy, 28,
Walen, S., Phrenophobia,
Cognitive Therapy & Research, 6, 399-408, 1982.
Warren, Ricks & Zgourides,
George, Anxiety Disorders: A Rational-Emotive Approach, Pergamon
Press, New York, 1991.
Ellis, Albert, A Sadly
Neglected Cognitive Element in Depression, Cognitive Therapy &
Research, 11, 121-146, 1987.
Woods, Paul J. & Greiger,
Russell M., Bulimia: A Case Study with Mediating Cognitions and Notes
on a Cognitive-behavioural Analysis of Eating Disorders, Journal of
Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 11:3, 159-172, 1993.
Malkinson, Ruth, Cognitive
Behavioural Grief Therapy, Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive
Behaviour Therapy, 14:3, 155-171, 1996.
Ellis, Albert, The
Treatment of Borderline Personalities with Rational Emotive behaviour
Therapy, Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy,
12:2, 101-119, 1994.
Aeschleman, Stanley R. & Imes, Cheryl. (1999). Stress Inoculation Training
for Impulsive Behaviours in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal
of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy, 17:1, 51-65.
Psychosis / Inpatients /
Chadwick, P. Birchwood, M. &
Trower, P., Cognitive Therapy for Delusions, Voices and Paranoia,
Wiley, Chichester, 1996, 0471961736
Kopec, Ann Marie, Rational
Emotive Behaviour Therapy in a Forensic Setting: Practical Issues,
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 13:4, 243-253,
Ellis, Gordon, Neenan &
Palmer, Stress Counselling: A Rational Emotive Behavioural Approach,
Cassell (or Springer), London (or New York), 1997 (or 1998).
Morse,C., Bernard,M.E. &
Dennerstein,L., The Effects of Rational-Emotive Therapy & Relaxation
Training on Premenstrual Syndrome, Journal of Rational-Emotive &
Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 7:2, 98-110, 1989.
Rational-Effectiveness Train-ing: Increasing Personal Productivity at Work,
Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy, New York, 1990.
Dryden, W. & Trower, P. (Eds). Developments in Rational-Emotive Therapy.
Open University Press, Milton Keynes,UK, 1988.
Ellis, A. & Bernard, M.E.
(Eds.), Clinical Applications Of Rational-Emotive Therapy, Plenum,
New York, 1985.
Children & Adolescents
Bernard, M.E. & Joyce, M. (1984). Rational-Emotive Therapy with Children
and Adolescents. New York: Wiley.
Kinney, Andrew, Cognitive-behaviour
Therapy with Children: Developmental Reconsiderations, Journal of
Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 9:1, 51-61, 1991.
Morris, G. Barry, A
Rational-Emotive Treatment Program with Conduct Dirsorder and
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents, Journal of
Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 11:3, 123-134, 1993.
Nelson, Hart & Finch, Anger in Children: A Cognitive-behavioural View of
the Assessment-Therapy Connection, Journal of Rational-Emotive &
Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 11:3, 135-150, 1993.
Seasock, John P.,
Identification of Adolescent Sex Offenders: A REBT Model, Journal of
Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 13:4, 261-271, 1995.
Vernon, Ann, Thinking, Feeling, Behaving - Grades 1-6; An Emotional
Education Curriculum for Children, Research Press, Champaign, IL,
Vernon, Ann, Thinking, Feeling, Behaving - Grades 7-12; An Emotional
Education Curriculum for Adolescents, Research Press, Champaign, IL,
Whitford, Robert & Parr, Vincent, Uses of Rational Emotive Behaviour
Therapy with Juvenile Sex Offenders, Journal of Rational-Emotive &
Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 13:4, 273-282, 1995.
J.L. & Fodor, I.G., A Cognitive-behavioural Approach to Modifying
Assertive behaviour in Women, Counselling Psychologist, 5(4), 45-52,
Ellis, Albert. (1999). Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy and
Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy for Elderly People. Journal of
Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy, 17:1, 5-18.
Oliver, Rose & Bock, Fran. Coping with Alzheimer's: A Caregiver's
Emotional Survival Guide. Wilshire Book Company, North Hollywood,
Oliver, Rose & Bock, Frances
A., Alleviating the Distress of Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease
Patients: A Rational-Emotive Therapy Model, Journal of
Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 8:1, 53-69, 1990.
Warnock, Sandra, Rational-Emotive Therapy and the Christian Client,
Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy, 7:4, 263-280,
Principles & Techniques
Ellis, Albert, Group
rational-emotive and cognitive-behavioural therapy, International
Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 42(1):63-80, 1992.
Ellis, A., Sichel, J.,
Yeager, R., DiMattia, D., & DiGiuseppe, R., Rational-Emotive Couple's
Therapy, Pergamon, New York, 1989.
Greiger, Russell M.. (1986). Rational-Emotive Couples Therapy - Special
Issue. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-behaviour Therapy.
4:1, whole issue.
Huber, C.H. & Baruth, L.G.,
Rational-Emotive Family Therapy: A Systems Perspective. Springer,
New York, 1989.
General practice of REBT
Dryden, Windy & Golden, William L. (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioural
Approaches to Psychotherapy, Hemisphere Publishing Corp, New York,
Dryden, W. & Trower, P.
(Eds.), Cognitive Psychotherapy: Stasis and change, Springer
Publishing Co, New York, 1989.
to use REBT
Bernard, Michael, Using
Rational-Emotive Therapy Effectively: A Practitioner's Guide, Plenum
Press, New York, 1991.
Dryden, Windy, Brief Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, John Wiley
& Sons, Chichester, 1995.
Walen, Susan R., Digiuseppe,
Ray, & Dryden, Windy, A Practitioner's Guide To Rational-Emotive
Therapy (Second Edition), Oxford University Press, New York, 1992.
Wessler, R.L. & Ellis, A.,
Supervision in Counselling: Rational-Emotive Therapy., The Counselling
Psychologist, 11 (1), 43-49, 1983.
Bernard, Michael E. & Wolfe,
Janet L., The RET Resource Book for Practitioners, Institute for
Rational-Emotive Therapy, New York, 1993.
Dryden, Windy (Ed.),
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy: A reader, Sage Publications,
Nelson-Jones, Richard. (1998). Using the Whiteboard in Lifeskills
Counselling. The Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapist. 6:2, 77-88
How to obtain items on this
of the items listed are available through the interloan system.
purchase any of the books:
Have your local bookseller order it from overseas.
Order via the internet: go to the New Zealand Centre for Rational
Emotive Behaviour Therapy�s website (www.rational.org.nz)
and click on �BookShop�.
Some of the books, especially
those on REBT, can be obtained from the Albert Ellis Institute: 45 East 65th
Street, New York, N.Y. 10021, United States of America. Fax:
001-212-249-3582. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org..
REBT on the Internet
There are numerous internet sites related
to REBT. A good place to start searching would be the New Zealand
Centre for Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy website at:
(go to the �Links� page).
REBT In New Zealand
training began in New Zealand in 1992 with the presentation of the first
Primary Certificate course. Courses were organised on an annual basis from
New Zealand, using presenters from Australia and New Zealand, with
certification provided by the Australian Institute for Rational-Emotive
In 1997, the New
Zealand Centre for Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy was established, in
order to promote REBT in this country and provide training for helping
professionals that was directly related to the New Zealand situation.
Centre can be contacted as follows:
PO Box 2292, Stortford Lodge, Hastings, New Zealand.
Phone: 64-6-870-9963 Fax: 64-6-870-9964
E-mail: click here
teaching clients to be their own thera�pists. A useful technique to aid
this is Rational Self-Analysis (Froggatt, 1993) which involves
writing down an emotional episode in a structured fash�ion. Here is an
example of such an analy�sis using the case described earlier:
A. Activating Event
Friend passed me in the street without acknowledging me.
My inferences about this event: He�s ignoring me and doesn�t like me. I
could end up without friends forever. I�m not acceptable as a friend.
C. Consequence (how
Behaviour: avoiding people generally.
B. Beliefs (My evaluative
thinking about the �A�):
It would be
terrible to end up without friends for ever.
Because I�m not
acceptable as a friend I must be worthless as a person.
To feel worthwhile
and be happy, I must be liked and approved by everyone significant to me.
New Effect (how
i would prefer to
feel/behave): Disappointed but
(new rational beliefs to help me achieve this new reaction):
to prove I�ll never have friends again � but, even if this did happen,
it would be unpleasant rather than a source of �terror�.
There�s no proof
I�m not acceptable as a friend � but even if I were, this proves nothing
about the total �me�, or my �worthwhileness�. (And, anyway, what does
approval are highly desirable. But, they are not absolute necessities.
Making them so is not only illogical, but actually screws me up when I
think they may not be forthcoming. Better I keep them as preferences
rather than demands.
F. Further Action
I�ll do to avoid repeating the same irrational/thoughts reactions):
Go and see my
friend, check out how things really are.
If he doesn�t
want me as a friend, I�ll start looking elsewhere.
on catastrophising and self-rating.
irrational demand for approval by doing one thing each day (for the next
week) that I would normally avoid doing because of fear it may lead to